Analysis of Information and Communications Technology Adoption between Small Businesses in China and the United States

ABSTRACT: This paper reports on two case studies, the Information and Communications Technology (ICT) adoption among small businesses conducted in both United States and China. One small business from Nebraska (United States of America) and one small business from Sichuan (China) were chosen for comparison. The purpose of this paper is to conduct a comparative case study based on the ICT adoption among small businesses in China and the United States. This paper will: (i) build an understanding of small business ICT in both areas, (ii) explore the relationship between the ICT development in less cutting-edge areas of China and the United States. The result shows that small business in the United States use more advanced ICT than China due to several factors. This study paves the way for the future comparisons to be conducted between California and Zhejiang. Also, this study contributes to and extends the understanding of how information is the driving force behind economic growth in both developing and developed countries.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Economic growth, ICT programs, small business

As the global digital divide narrows, who is being left behind?

ABSTRACT: There is a sense that information and communications technologies (ICT) have the potential to give people the freedom they need to lead the lives they value. Papers published in this journal consider how ICTs are the means that enable people to achieve their ends of better livelihoods. This line of research builds upon the work of Amartya Sen’s (1999) book entitled Development as Freedom, where development is seen as the process of expanding the real freedoms that people enjoy. In particular, Andersson, Gro¨nlund and Wicander’s Special Issue in this journal (2012) illustrates how development can be seen as freedom when the capabilities by which people are able to achieve their ends are expanded through the use of ICTs. If people have the freedom to achieve the aims they value, then they will be able to lead better lives through their use of ICTs. The outcome of such better livelihoods can be seen in terms of human, social and economic development. The papers in this issue continue to build upon this discovery by considering the role of ICTs in enabling development as freedom. It discusses how the Internet may or may not support freedoms to achieve better livelihoods and delves deeper into the challenges faced by people whose lives are changed for better or for worse by their use of ICTs

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, socio-economic development, International Telecommunications Union, Civic engagement, Global market

Assessment of the social factors in information and communication technology access and use

ABSTRACT: There is evidence to suggest that use of information and communication technology (ICT) can play an important role in the growth of small businesses and their communities, countries, and regions. In this sense, ICT can be employed to bring about increased competitiveness if it enables businesses to create new jobs and increase productivity and sales through access to new markets and administrative efficiencies. These outcomes can be achieved through measurable improvements in the lives of people living with limited resources to sustain themselves. It is often the access to ICTs that enables broader development objectives to be realized. In particular, social development objectives, which concern the provision of services such as education and healthcare, can be realized through judicious application of ICTs. It is often the ways in which ICTs are used that can potentially enable people to lead better lives. However, these gains are not always realized, nor are they within the reach of those who need them the most. The papers in this issue recognize an important fact: ICT implementations are influenced by social processes that determine the outcomes and often have political ramifications. Although diverse in their methods and analyses, these papers all provide unique insight into well known yet not always well understood social factors in ICT access and use.

Keywords: Microfinance Sector, E-Commerce, Information and Communication Technologies, socio-economic development, International Telecommunications Union, social capital

Creating a Better World with Information and Communication Technologies: Health Equity

ABSTRACT: When news broke on 23rd July 2014, that a case of the deadly virus Ebola had been confirmed in Lagos, home to about 21 million people and a major transportation hub, the World held its breath. If not contained, this virus could spread quickly killing a multitude of people around the World. By 15th October, cases of Ebola had been recorded around the World: Liberia reported 4249 cases with 2458 deaths, Sierra Leone reported 3252 cases with 1183 deaths, Guinea 1472 cases with 843 deaths, Nigeria reported 20 cases with 8 deaths, the USA reported 3 cases and 1 death, Spain and Senegal reported 1 case with no deaths (Qureshi et al, 2015).

Keywords: Health equity, Information and Communication Technologies, Mobile signals, Equitable healthcare, social media

Cycles of Electronic Health Records Adaptation by Physicians: How Do the Positive and Negative Experiences with the EHR System Affect Physicians' EHR Adaptation Process?

ABSTRACT: The integration of EHR in IT infrastructures supporting organizations enable improved access and recording of patient data, enhanced ability to make improved decisions, improved quality and reduced errors in patient care. Despite these benefits, there are mixed results as to the use of EHR. The literature suggests that the reasons for the limited use relate to policy, financial and usability considerations, but it does not provide an understanding of reasons for physicians' limited interaction and adaptation of EHR. Following an analysis of qualitative data, collected in a case study at a hospital using interviews, this research explains how physicians interact with EHR. The key contribution of this research is in explaining how physicians interact with EHR in terms of concepts that are grounded in the real world experiences of physicians. The model of positive and negative physician work cycles is introduced and discussed. Contributions to research and practice are presented.

Keywords: EHR Adaption, Electronic Health Records, Physician Adaptation, Qualitative EHR Use

Discovering development from information technologies: does open access to technology improve the lives of people?

ABSTRACT: One of the most compelling problems facing society is how to understand the effects of Information Technology and that illusive “Communication” technology in the more contemporary term Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) on the lives of people – especially those living in marginalized circumstances. The ability to communicate through the use of information technologies has enabled access to skill, expertise and knowledge by people who are able to use these resources to improve their lives. This ability is also manifest in technologies, such as cell phones and internet chat rooms that allow innovative uses of the technology to bring about measureable improvements in the lives of people. Discovering these improvements in the lives of people who use these technologies to come out of poverty or deprivations, is the subject of the study of how Information Technology may enable Development. The effects of ICTs on Development can be studied to assess how economic growth, namely income generation and job creation may take place; how social development outcomes, such as the effects of technology on healthcare, government and education may be improved; and how human development outcomes of empowerment, participation in civic life and the achievement of individual freedoms may be enabled through access and use of information technology. These are just some of the many ways in which ICTs have been shown to bring about improvements in the lives of people. Researchers in the Information Technology for Development field have shown that there is a link between the adoption of ICTs by people in a region and an increase in incomes of people in that region (Baliamoune-Lutz, 2003; Bollou and Ngwenyama, 2008; Cecchini and Scott, 2003; Kottemann and Boyer-Wright, 2009; Kosempel, 2007).

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Telecenters, Internet chat rooms, payment systems, e-government

Driving development through innovations in information technology and its applications

ABSTRACT: On April 15th 2010, The Economist reported that innovations in emerging economies were changing the way in which these economies operate. “Emerging countries are shaking off the recession as developed countries continue to struggle,” it reported, and stated that: “the emerging world was enjoying the most spectacular growth in history. Its share of global GDP (at purchasing-power parity) increased from 36% in 1980 to 45% in 2008 and looks set to grow to 51% in 2014. Emerging-market consumers have been outspending the Americans since 2007; by last year their share of global consumption had gone up to 34% against America’s 27%” (“The world turned upside down,” 2010). It is not just innovations in technologies that are changing the lives of people in these countries, but a more general cycle of disruptive innovation is taking place that enables people and businesses in these countries to transform established technologies and business practices to suit their needs

Keywords: Emerging-market consumers, Disruptive Innovation, micro-business models, ICT Maturity, mobile e-learning environment

Equitable Healthcare Provision: Uncovering the Impact of the Mobility Effect on Human Development

ABSTRACT: Even though the effects of mobile phone and internet usage on the health and wellbeing of a population are becoming apparent, few studies have uncovered the nature of this relationship to the equitable provision of healthcare. The contribution is in discovering the relationships between mobility effects and human development where inequities in income play an important role, the relationships to socio-economic development and in showing how the mobility effect can assist in addressing health inequities.

Keywords: Human development, Healthcare, socio-economic development, IThealth

Extending Human Capabilities through Information Technology Applications and Infrastructures

ABSTRACT: Many studies explore the ways in which information technology can bring about improvements in people’s lives by considering aspects of how it is used, applied in various communities and countries and how it affects certain key economic indicators such as growth. In particular, it appears that human development can be enabled through access and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by enabling personal freedoms to be achieved. Sen (1999) suggests that in order to achieve Development, people need to be able to extend their capabilities so that they can access resources, earn an income and achieve their personal goals. The freedom of choice to be able to take opportunities that will enable people to earn an income is according to Sen (1999) alleviating poverty in developed as well as countries that are considered developing. Income is needed in order to enable people to get an education, healthcare and achieve other personal goals. Yet a key aspect of Sen’s capability perspective is that income is only a means to achieve the ends that people want to pursue if given the freedoms to do so. This is central to an understanding of development as a means of offering people the freedom to achieve their aims

Keywords: Healthcare, IT infrastructure, Human Capabilities, e-business, Community Telecenters

Extending Human Capabilities through Information Technology Applications and Infrastructures

ABSTRACT: Many studies explore the ways in which information technology can bring about improvements in people’s lives by considering aspects of how it is used, applied in various communities and countries and how it affects certain key economic indicators such as growth. In particular, it appears that human development can be enabled through access and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) by enabling personal freedoms to be achieved. Sen (1999) suggests that in order to achieve Development, people need to be able to extend their capabilities so that they can access resources, earn an income and achieve their personal goals. The freedom of choice to be able to take opportunities that will enable people to earn an income is according to Sen (1999) alleviating poverty in developed as well as countries that are considered developing. Income is needed in order to enable people to get an education, healthcare and achieve other personal goals. Yet a key aspect of Sen’s capability perspective is that income is only a means to achieve the ends that people want to pursue if given the freedoms to do so. This is central to an understanding of development as a means of offering people the freedom to achieve their aims

Keywords: Healthcare, IT infrastructure, Human Capabilities, e-business, Community Telecenters

Globalization in development: do information and communication technologies really matter

ABSTRACT: Theories and practises of development have evolved since the 1950s when modernist theories were used to replicate the European model in Southern countries and Structuralist theories suggested that these countries needed to limit their interactions with the global economy to allow for domestic economic growth. This trend was followed by dependency theories in the 1960s and 1970s that focussed on government and aid policies to provide for the world’s poorest people (Willis, 2011). However, Willis (2011) suggests that the global economic problems of the 1980s and the recognition that development theories had not been translated into practical success led theorists to stop and think about development. In particular, globalization is becoming a main factor affecting the incomes and living conditions of people. Castells (2004) writes about the rise of the fourth world brought about by disparities in incomes of people within the same country. He states that there is a polarization in the distribution of wealth at the global level, increasing income inequality within countries and a rise in poverty within most developed and developing countries. It appears that the greatest inequality is between urban and rural areas with the rural populations being worse off than their urban counterparts (Castells, 2004; Willis, 2011).

Keywords: Globalization, technological revolution, information-processing devices, Human Development Index, Inter-organizational systems, m-development

How Can Physician's Knowledge Be Activated to Provide Better Healthcare? Explaining Electronic Health Record Adaptation by Physicians

ABSTRACT: Despite the rising costs of healthcare and falling quality of care, the integration of EHR (Electronic Health Records) in supporting collaboration to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of healthcare remains a challenge. It appears that the physicians are at the center of this bottleneck. The literature suggests that the reasons for the limited use relate to policy, financial and usability considerations, but it does not provide an understanding of reasons for physicians' limited interaction and adaptation of EHR. Following an analysis of qualitative data, collected in a case study at a hospital using interviews, this research shows how a collaborative technology architecture can enable the physicians to better interact with their partners using the E.H.R technology for the purpose of improving healthcare provision.

Keywords: Collaboration, Electronic Medical Records, Information technology, Hospitals, Medical diagnostic imaging, Adaptation models

Improving outcomes from Information and Communication Technology for Development (ICT4D) studies

ABSTRACT: Research in Information and Communication Technologies for Development (ICT4D) is becoming increasingly diverse. The reason being that the last decade has seen, in line with the growth in the availability and use of information and communications technologies (ICTs), a large increase in the number and range of published work on the topic which draw upon a whole range of disciplinary approaches (Walsham, 2017). While drawing upon theories that help understand emerging phenomena, research in ICT4D also requires attention to the contextual challenges facing practitioners in the field. There have been attempts to develop theories that enable these challenges to be understood. Global pressures, socio-economic pressures, disruptive technology, and the emergence of multi-stakeholder networks are some of the forces being studied (Njihia and Merali, 2013). For scholars hoping to draw upon this area, this issue offers a snapshot of papers that illustrate the proliferation of technologies and contexts in which they are implemented. They highlight a glimpse of the key contributions of research in this area while describing the challenges.

Keywords: Mobile money, socio-technical, actor-network theory, Enterprise resource planning, customer relationship management

In the Age of Popular Uprisings, what is the Role of Public Access Computing and Social Media on Development?

ABSTRACT: Civic engagement has long been touted as a key to enabling people to participate in their collective destiny and take control of their collective good. Recent events in Egypt have shown us that the will of the people is powerful, even though people's opinions, preferences, and political affiliations diverge. The role of social media in enabling coalitions to form, congregate in large numbers, and overthrow the governments they oppose appears to have become prominent. It appears that with these uprisings, social media are transforming the ways in which people choose to take control of their collective lives, that of their communities and societies. Social media and public access to the Internet serve as platforms supporting the creation of social coalitions and civic engagement, for better or for worse, bring about new ways people can quest for better livelihoods. The concept of development is emerging with these changes from being primarily supported through institutions to one in which these very institutions are part of the change that could lead to their destruction. For example, the heavy-handed nature of a military government's interventions could cause greater upheaval that in turn limits its legitimacy and remit for action unless they are aligned with the will of their people. While at the same time, government support, community acceptance, and valuable social activity in the relevant social groups are important in the creation of institutions of development supported by information and communication technologies (ICTs) as evidenced in studies reported by Madon, Reinhard, Roode, and Walsham (2009).

Keywords: Human development, Information and Communication Technologies, Healthcare, ICT-enabled service, social capital

Information technology for development in expanding capabilities

ABSTRACT: The concept of development continues to evolve as information and communication technologies (ICTs) are applied in innovative ways to support the needs of people living with very limited resources. While it appears that the implementation of ICT infrastructures in underserved communities and in less developed countries (LDCs) may not always lead to the benefits expected in terms of efficiency and cost effectiveness, there appear to be benefits in using ICTs to support the human capabilities. In their call for a more “strategic developmental focus” Thompson and Walsham (2010) suggest that the conception, development, implementation, and use of ICT functions as an explicit vehicle for furthering developmental aims. By this they mean that ICTs in themselves cannot be seen as an end to development efforts, but more as enabling sets of social behaviors. At the same time development agencies appear to view ICTs as an end to their efforts to alleviate poverty, provide healthcare and better government services. Brown and Grant (2010) state that although the extent to which the benefits of ICTs can be realized remains to be seen, it is this perceived capacity to provide broad, far-reaching and even revolutionary, socio-economic change that has brought ICT to the center of the development discourse. They identify a duality between research in ICT for development and ICT in developing countries in which contributions to development from researching ICTs in developing contexts are not often forthcoming. They argue that both these streams of research are being carried out in parallel with little or no overlap with each other (Brown & Grant, 2010).

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Healthcare, strategic developmental focus, information services, e-government initiatives, operational and financial sustainability, mobile libraries

Information technology for development research: are we investigating new phenomena or well-known facts?

ABSTRACT: The paragraph describing Diego Navarra’s paper in the Editorial for Volume 16 Issue 2 should have read as follows: Diego Navarra’s paper entitled “The Architecture of Global ICT Programs: A Case Study of E-Governance in Jordan” is the third paper in this issue. The focus of this paper is on e-governance policy initiatives in Jordan as a case study of the architecture of ICT programs and of the global transformation of government. In this paper, the concept of global ICT programs are defined as programs that include the development and use of portals, interactive applications and also other ICT programs which aim at providing electronic government services to citizens. The question this paper investigates is what are the assumptions upon which the evaluation of the recent trends of ICT programs and initiatives should be based? Following analysis of electronic governance in Jordan, this paper concludes that by addressing these issues as in the context of broader government objectives, global ICT programs could cater for a more inter-disciplinary policy direction of future e-governance initiatives. This could also assist in evaluating the extent to which the architecture of global ICT programs can contribute to the ambitious targets set by the Millennium Development Goals

Keywords: e-governance policy, ICT programs, electronic government services, e-governance initiative

Lessons from the Age of Nelson Mandela: Information and Communication Technology in the Quest for Equality, Freedom and Justice

ABSTRACT: Nelson Mandela passed away on the night of 5 December 2013. After spending 27 years in prison, the civil rights activist led a movement that led to the abolition of his country's notorious apartheid regime which mandated segregation since 1948. After many years of struggle, he was released in 1991 and became the country's first black president in 1994 after a democratic election which also ended apartheid. I was working at the Commonwealth Secretariat at that time when most of my colleagues had monitored the elections in South Africa. One of my colleagues who had just returned from overseeing the elections stated euphorically: “The country has changed, Africa has changed and the world has changed completely … we will never be the same again” she exclaimed. Indeed the newly elected President went on to create programs for job creation, housing, healthcare, education and justice that would ensure equality for all, together with programs for reconstruction and reconciliation. The Huffington Post reported the day after Mandela's passing that it was his charisma and his lack of bitterness over the harsh treatment he faced as a prisoner in Roben Island off the coast of Cape Town that enabled a smooth transition for his government. He continued to gain attention in the media as he ensured that all segments of the population in his country were treated equally and their freedoms preserved. The day after his passing, President Obama praised the South African leader's struggle and accomplishments stating that “He no longer belongs to us, he belongs to the ages … His commitment to transfer power and reconcile with those who jailed him set an example that all humanity should aspire to.” The Economist reported in a series of articles commemorating Mandela's passing that he was a hero who won a long hard battle against Apartheid for his people, but he was not a saint; he was a giant whose passing marked one of the most important struggles of our time: equality, freedom and justice.

Keywords: Healthcare, Communications technology, Human development endowment, ICT Development Index, social media

Mobile Access for Patient Centered Care: The Challenges of Activating Knowledge through Health Information Technology

ABSTRACT: With the growing use of mobile technology to access health information, patients are being empowered in their healthcare choices. While specific mobile applications are becoming available for patients to manage their own care, most treatment processes support healthcare professionals and offer little support for patient centered care. In order to address this problem, federal regulations require providers to become "meaningful users" of Health Information Technology (HIT) in an effort to encourage patient centered care through the assessment of health outcomes. This paper contends that addressing meaningful use practices for patient centered care involves the activation of knowledge, which means bringing knowledge into action. A survey of 73 health care providers sought to discover how their knowledge activation affects patient centered care. The results suggest that current HIT usage by providers has limited knowledge activation. The contribution of this research is in that it identifies areas that would to bring about improvements in patient centered care and a model that shows how mobile access to patient records could potentially streamline the patient care process.

Keywords: Mobile communication, Electronic Medical Records, Information technology, Hospitals, Medical diagnostic imaging, Encoding

Networks of change, shifting power from institutions to people: how are innovations in the use of information and communication technology transforming development?

ABSTRACT: In 2006, Professor Muhammad Yunus and Grameen Bank received the Nobel Peace Prize in Oslo, Norway, for their pioneering work in fighting global poverty by providing financial services for the poor. Grameen Bank, started by Professor Yunus in 1976, is credited with pioneering microcredit banking when he gave a loan of $27 to 43 poor women. Since then, Grameen Bank has helped more than 8.3 million borrowers, 97% of whom are women (Grameen Foundation, 2013). The following year, Forbes magazine reported that there were about 12,000 micro-finance institutions in the world with some of the big banks, government and private foundations getting into the game (Swibel, 2007). When receiving his Nobel Peace Prize, Professor Yunus was asked by a reporter: “what is your secret to helping people out of poverty?”

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Microcredit banking, Micro-businesses, Mobile cellphones, Telecenters, Electronic telecommunications

Outrage and anger in a global pandemic: flipping the script on healthcare

ABSTRACT: Amidst a global pandemic, outrage and anger over the death of a Black man at the hands of a White police officer spread globally. The protests exposed generations of institutional racism and socio-economic inequities in many countries. This editorial explores the socio-economic inequities that have left those in racially segregated marginalized communities most at risk from COVID 19. It offers a cyclical view of the relationship between socio-economic inequities and health outcomes, suggesting that once these inequities are addressed, then health outcomes can improve. There is an important role to be played by ICTs in enabling a positive cycle to take place. The papers in this issue reflect the ways in which the socio-economic indicators can be increased to support better health outcomes for people in low SES communities. They uncover the key issues facing communities offering healthcare service to their constituents and move the field forward by showing the ways in which ICTs may support a positive cycle of development and health outcomes.

Keywords: COVID-19, socio-economic inequities, Healthcare, World Economic Forum, Outrage

Overcoming Technological Determinism in Understanding the Digital Divide: Where Do We Go From Here?

ABSTRACT: The plethora of research on the digital divide has illustrated that in essence the gap between digital “haves” and “have-nots” is a complex phenomenon with local and global characteristics (Barzilai-Nahon, 2006; van Dijk, 2006; Servon, 2008; Warschauer, 2003 are some sources). It appears that the digital divides may not be associated with economic and social well-being as hoped for by governments and international agencies. A study by the Economist (2011) found that Africa is now one of the world's fastest-growing regions with 6 of the world's 10 fastest-growing economies in sub-Saharan Africa. For example, Uganda's GDP growth rate, one of the highest in sub-Saharan Africa, has fluctuated between 6.6% in 2011, 3.4% in 2012, around 6% in 2013 and 6.9% in the first quarter of 2014 (World Bank World Development Indicators, 2014. Yet the digital divides remain active in Uganda, with 45.9% of the population with mobile cellular subscriptions and 14.7% using the internet (International Telecommunications Union, 2012). This is largely due to deep divides between those who have resources, skills and education to reap the benefits of the information technologies and those who do not (May, Waema, & Bjastad, 2014; Servon, 2008; Warschauer, 2003). Given equal access to the technology, digital literacy sets apart those who are able to reap the benefits of the technology and those who are not. The divide between digital literacy exacerbates the inequalities caused by the information technologies, according to van Dijk (2006). He suggests that not only are the relative differences between social categories, that were already unequal in terms of “old” types of resources and capital, are amplified by the use of digital media, but the control of positions in an increasingly global, complex society and the possession of information and strategic skills to acquire and maintain these positions is increasingly unequally divided. In this way, he adds that digital media usage contributes to new types of absolute and relative inequality that add to or reinforce existing inequalities (van Dijk, 2006, p. 231).

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Digital divide, International Telecommunications Union, Digital literacy, National Telecommunications and Information Administration

Pandemics within the pandemic: confronting socio-economic inequities in a datafied world

ABSTRACT: The pandemic has brought to light and exacerbated inequities that have plagued the world even before COVID-19 spread. Despite its medical and technological advances, much of the western world was unprepared for what its people faced. With a death toll and mortality rates unseen in modern times, the datafied world amidst some populist regimes witnessed additional pandemics within the pandemic of raging infections. In the changing world broadband internet access is becoming more essential to enabling people to lead their lives while locked-down and/or in quarantine. People become accustomed to accessing healthcare information, resources and providers through mobile and or other devices for their COVID 19 information, while tracking and tracing is being carried out using mobile applications. Those at the margins become vulnerable to digital biopolitics or efforts by governments and corporations to maximize knowledge and control of populations using digital means for political and economic power. In this the datafied society, increased data surveillance offered cause for activism and fight for human rights and freedoms. This also referred to as the datafied pandemic in which life revolves on the internet more than ever through access to tools, basic services, and social environments. Within these digital divides, the forces of globalization forge ahead with perils and promises. These issues are explored in this editorial and ways of tackling the pandemics offered in the light of papers in this issue. ICT4D research offers ways in which we may together create a better world for all.

Keywords: COVID-19, Quarantine, mobile application, Datafied pandemic, social environments

Perspectives on development: why does studying information and communication technology for development (ICT4D) matter?

ABSTRACT: The concept of development has been used by scholars and practitioners to demonstrate changes for the better in the lives of individuals, communities, nations and regions. Historically, the practice of development has been associated with interventions and categorizations that have had the opposite effect in countries and regions deemed to be developing. Current notions of development predicated on respect for individual rights, human freedoms, environmental sustainability, health and well-being and education have been more successful in achieving improvements in the lives of people. Yet, historic notions of development persist and continue to drive failing projects. This editorial explores the historical notions of development that persist to this day and offers a view of contemporary perspectives on development. As a growing set of development interventions and papers in this issue involve Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs), the question of why Information and Communication Technology for Development matters? is addressed in the light of development perspectives.

Keywords: Human capital, Information and Communication Technologies, socio-economic development, World Economic Forum, social capital, Gender Development Index, Communication Technology for Development

Physician Interaction with Electronic Health Records: The Influences on Digital Natives and Digital Immigrants

ABSTRACT: The integration of EHR (Electronic Health Records) in IT infrastructures supporting organizations enable improved access to and recording of patient data, enhanced ability to make better and more-timely decisions, and improved quality and reduced errors. Despite these benefits, there are mixed results as to the use of EHR. The literature suggests that the reasons for the limited use relate to policy, financial and usability considerations, but it does not provide an understanding of reasons for physicians' limited interaction and adaptation of EHR. Following an analysis of qualitative data, collected in a case study at a hospital using interviews, this research explains how physicians interact with EHR. The key contribution of this research is explaining how physicians interact with EHR in terms of concepts that are grounded in the real world experiences of physicians.

Keywords: Electronic Health Records, Digital natives, Digital immigrants, IT infrastructure, patient data access, patient data recording, Qualitative data analysis

Role of Social Determinants of Health in building an mHealth application

ABSTRACT: The pandemic has shown that the health of those with the least resources affects the rest of the population. Social determinants of health effect health disparities leading to greater inequities between those with and those without the resources needed to stay healthy. In order to help people, find resources they need to stay healthy, an mHealth application was created. Data was collected through this mobile application to investigate: what are the social determinants of health resources (SDOH) that are needed to address health inequities? Using this data, an mHealth prototype was developed to help understand whether the application can be useful in addressing the health inequities in a local community. Following a design science approach, the analysis suggests that resources for some social determinants of health are more useful than others. The contribution of this paper is in uncovering the SDOH resources that are needed to address the health inequities.

Keywords: Health equity, Social determinants of health

Social and economic perspectives on the role of information and communication technology for development

ABSTRACT: Development is an improvement in the lives of people and their communities. When investigating the effects of information technology on development, we study the ways in which technologies that enable information to be communicated improve the lives of people in their communities, regions, countries, or even groups of countries. This can be studied by investigating the social impacts on development of the technologies. The social concept of development suggests that people participate in improving their circumstances through the development of healthcare, education, environment, and community services (Apthorpe, 1999; Arce, 2003; Midgley, 2003). Social development considers improvements in the lives of people through programs in healthcare, education, and the environment that are often implemented by governments. When governments make use of information and communication technologies to improve their services, they might also contribute to social development. Some authors suggest that governments make policy based on discourse that has recourse to neat, easily available and powerfully constructed sets of institutional, legislative, and financial resources (Apthorpe, 1999; Midgley, 2003). These policies are implemented to bring about social development. Social development activities are designed to raise living standards, increase local participation in development, and address the needs of vulnerable and oppressed groups (Midgley, 2003). Economic development is a means of studying development that considers improvements in the lives of people through income generation, job creation, and other factors such as trade and migration. Theories of economic development try to predict the choices people make in order to improve the quality of their lives and offer tools that policy makers can use to balance the cyclical changes in economies. Development theorists such as Schumpeter (2002) offer empirical evidence of how economies can benefit from innovation, education, and foreign investments. The papers in this issue offer compelling contributions to both social and economic development and into the role of information and communication technology in bringing this about.

Keywords: Healthcare, Economic Prosperity, Academic Libraries, Human Resource Development, Social development

The Effect of Mobile Health and Social Inequalities on Human Development and Health Outcomes: Mhealth for Health Equity

ABSTRACT: The equitable provision of healthcare entails the distribution of resources and other processes to overcome health inequality. The concept of heath equity suggests that differences in social and economic backgrounds of people affect their ability to lead the lives they choose to live. Following a review of what is known about health equity, social determinants of health equity and the role of mobile health, this paper investigates the relationship between mHealth, social inequalities in life expectancy and in education on Human Development and Health and Wellbeing. The analysis discovers a significant relationship between mHealth, social inequalities in human development and health outcomes. These findings have important implications for the use of mHealth applications to achieve health equity. The contribution of this paper is in understanding the role of social inequalities in and mHealth in enabling people to bring about improvements in the lives they lead and in their health outcomes.

Keywords: Health equity, Human development, mHealth, Healthcare, wellbeing

Theory to Inform Practice to Build Theory: Are Emerging Economies in a Cyclical Relationship with their Information and Communication Technologies?

ABSTRACT: Five years ago, the global economy was in the midst of a recession thought to be one of the deepest in recent history. The recession left high unemployment rates, shrinking middle classes and rising inequalities in many countries of the Western world accustomed to dominating the world economy. At the same time, The Economist reported that China, India and Indonesia were among the few economies in the world that continued to expand throughout the global downturn. Even though the smaller, more open Asian economies were badly hit, between September and March the real GDP fell by an average annualized rate of 13% in Hong Kong, Malaysia, South Korea, Singapore, Taiwan and Thailand, the countries' second-quarter GDP figures showed a bounce. Comparing the second quarter with the first at an annualized rate, China's GDP grew by 15%, South Korea's by almost 10%, Singapore's soared by 21% and Indonesia's managed a respectable 5% (The Economist, 2009).

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, Global economy, Economic growth, Telecenter facilities, Mobile payments

What is the role of mobile phones in bringing about growth?

ABSTRACT: Mobile phones have been touted as one of the most transformative technologies to have brought about development by Jeffrey Sachs of Columbia University, Tom Standage, Digital Editor of The Economist magazine, the International Telecommunications Union (ITU), and others. Innovations especially in mobile banking such as Kenya’s M-Pesa system have enabled banking and payment services to those who would otherwise remain without banking services, are seen as some of the ways in which Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) are enabling development. Morawczynski and Pickens (2009) show through their ethnographic study, how the lives of people are being transformed through their use of the M-Pesa mobile banking services. For better or for worse, these technologies are here to stay. The challenge faced when studying how ICTs bring about development is in understanding how does this relationship actually take place? For example, fishermen in Kerala, India, who are able to use mobile phones to search for the best market prices for their produce, see an increase in their incomes by 8%. Since the quantity of fish brought to the market increases with the rise in farmer’s income, consumer prices fall by 4% according to the Harvard economist Robert Jensen (2007). Does this mean that there could be a bi-directional relationship between ICTs and development? In that there could be a direct link between mobile phone coverage and the ability of farmers and businesses people to increase their incomes.

Keywords: Information and Communication Technologies, International Telecommunications Union, Mobile phones, Mobile banking, Gross Domestic Product

Why Data Matters for Development? Exploring Data Justice, Micro-Entrepreneurship, Mobile Money and Financial Inclusion

ABSTRACT: With the widespread extraction of very large datasets, artificial intelligence using machine learning hold the promise to address socio-economic problems such as poverty, environmental safety, food production, security and the spread of disease. These applications entail Big Data for Development in which social problems, poverty, food security and responses to climate disasters can be solved in the most efficient and effective manner. This brave new world of solving pressing problems through machine learning has several dark sides. A data divide is being created that leaves the most vulnerable populations out of the solutions being created while discriminating against those whose data is churned by obscure algorithms. Complex mathematical models together with computing algorithms produce scores that are used to evaluate the lives of the masses. These systems have scaled to enormous proportions, changing lives by affecting credit scores, job prospects and access to healthcare. The promise of fairness, transparency, cost-effectiveness and efficiency gives rise to powerful scoring algorithms that have the power to create mass devastation while discriminating against the most vulnerable. Questions arise as to: What injustices (types of injustice) are created by datafication of development? how can the injustices caused by the extraction, analysis and commoditization of data be alleviated? Who has access to and what is being done with private data? And for whose benefit or purpose is personal data being extracted? Such questions are explored through the contributions in on data justice, the use of ICTs by micro-Entrepreneurs, mobile money and financial inclusion offered through papers in this issue.

Keywords: Artificial intelligence, Mobile money, Micro-Entrepreneurs, Big Data for Development